Causes of the Nazi Ascension to Power

The rise of the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi Party) traces its roots to conclusion of the Great War. The German government, unable to get across the point of how poorly Germany had been faring at that time, was furthermore unable to brace the nation for the admission of defeat, leaving the German people feeling betrayed by those who were supposed to be serving the interests of the people. Germany admitting defeat also served to damage the German people’s sense of nationalism, something that the Nazi party would use to garner support later on. During this time period Germany also adopted a democratic government, a decision that would lead to political squabbling between factions of the left and right and one that would ultimately lead to a dictatorship.

The defeat of Germany and the tarnishing of Germanic pride were further worsened by the heavy losses sustained to it through the Treaty of Versailles. The victorious Allies punished Germany severely through the limitation of its armed forces, the loss of all overseas colonies as well as territories within the German state, and war reparations. The conditions set forth by the Treaty of Versailles were intended to cripple the German state to prevent another major conflict; however despite this short-term effect it also acted to further incense the people of Germany and give the Nazi party something to campaign on.

During this time period Adolf Hitler joined the Nazi Party, and through his excellent speeches and charismatic attitude he was able to rise to leadership. His party, campaigning on the injustices set forth through the Treaty of Versailles as well as banking on the anti-Semitic feelings that were prevalent during this time period, was not very popular at this time period, having only a few thousand members in its ranks.

In 1923 Adolf Hitler attempted a violent overthrow of the government which would later become known as the Munich (or Beer Hall) Putsch. This attempted overthrow, which was an utter failure, resulted in the arrest of Hitler and other members of the Nazi party on the charge of high treason. Using the trial as a platform for his party, Hitler was soon able to sway the people and the judge into believing that he was justified in his actions, and was able to get himself and other members of the party off on light sentences. Inevitably Hitler was sentenced to five years with a chance at early parole and was out after one year in prison. During his stint in jail Hitler was able to write his own book, titled Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which served to outline his political beliefs pertaining to German people, communism and Jewish people.

After his release from prison Hitler began rebuilding his dismantled Nazi party and began waiting for his opportunity to gain power. During this time period it should also be noted that Paul von Hindenburg, another soldier from the First World War, was elected president of Germany.

In 1923, the French sent units of their army to Ruhr Valley, Germany because they were unable to collect reparations. General strikes and passive resistance by the Germans worked well. However, to keep the workers sustained, the Weimar government paid them benefits by printing off more money. They were not willing to raise taxes to make up for it and inflation rose at a tremendous rate. At the end of the year, four trillion marks were equal to one dollar.

A huge social revolution occurred. Debtors paid off debts with worthless cash, creditors were receiving meaningless paper by the basketful. Even though salaries were raised, the cost of living increased even greater. Every form of revenue that was arranged in the past – bank savings, pensions, mortgages, now were worth nothing. The middle class became much closer to the proletariats, and rejected Marxist and socialist ideas. There was nothing for them to hope for, nothing for them to believe in.

Meanwhile, the U.S. was waiting for war reparations from the Allies, who would not pay it off until they collected reparations from Germany. The Dawes Plan, named after Charles G. Dawes, was implemented in Germany. This made the French evacuate Ruhr, reparation payments decreased and Germany was able to borrow money. A lot of American money was invested into Germany. Germany was able to get back on its feet through the use of foreign loans. This was to last until the Great Depression.

Over the next few years the support for the Nazi party swelled as people become fed up with the current establishment. In 1925 the Nazi Party held 27,000 members, however only four years later this number increased to 108,000 members.

The worsening global economic climate that pervaded throughout this time period served to further the people’s discontent. The governments own failure to resolve the issues led to a polarization of the government, in which the once dominant moderates became weakened by parties of the far-left and far-right. It was this for these reasons that Hitler and the Nazi party began their ascent to power.
(1)
http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/TIMELINE/nazirise.HTM




THE ROLE of PERSONALITY vs CIRCUMSTANCES THAT LED TO CREATION OF A SINGLE PARTY STATE:
NAZI GERMANY - Adolf Hitler
external image adolf_hitler_biography_2.jpg

PERSONALITY:
(Hitler's distinct personality traits that led to the creation/acceptance of a single-party state in Nazi Germany)

  • POWER OF SPEECH -
Hitler was a natural born orator and had the power of sensing that the people wanted to hear in order to manipulate his audience. His great power of speech gave him the ability to fill the crowd with uncontrollable feelings of euphoria and patriotism. witnesses often say that it was the passion in his speech that lead you to believe the same things as him.
  • PATRIOTIC NATURE -
Hitler’s patriotic views received much popularity from the German people. Hitler led people to believe that he will always act for the good of Germany, and its people. His sense of patriotism allowed him to gain the trust and support of the German people. Ultimately when Hitler did create a single-party state, majority of the people supported this, convinced that Hitler will act in ways to better Germany.
  • RELATION TO THE DIVINE -
Many of Hitler’s public speeches, referred to God as working through him:
I believe today that I am acting in the sense of the Almighty Creator. I am fighting for the Lord's work.- Adolf Hitler, Reichstag
I go the way that Providence dictates with the assurance of a sleepwalker. Adolf Hitler, Munich, Germany

In effect, some people started to perceive him as a rightful leader, apart from all the others, with the divinity of God vested in Hitler
and his work.


vs. CIRCUMSTANCES

- Germany was experiencing the great depression there was great economic hardship
- Unemployment rose to levels never seen before
- The Nazi party gained great support prior to the great depression
- During the mid 1930’s the democratic system began to unravel

- Mass campaigning took place when elections were set for September 14
th 1930

- Hitler made promises to restore Germany and bring her back to the golden years


Conclusion: Personality vs. Circumstances in the creation of a Single-Party State in Germany

In the case of the rise of Hitler as the dictator of a single party state, it can be seen as though Hitler manuevered the circumstances in accordance with his personality that ultimately brought about the rise of the fascist Nazi regime. Hitler's self will and self determination made him the perfect candidate for the people of Germany in the time that the circumstances were negative and the democratic system had failed Germany. Although some might argue that Germany’s circumstances after the Treaty of Versailles (unemployment, poor economic conditions, etc.), played a role in Hitler’s rise to power; his personality attributing to the power of speech, patriotic nature and relation to the divine is what ultimately led people to believe that Hitler, was the one leader needed for Germany, thus accepting the creation of a single-state party.



http://german-history.suite101.com/article.cfm/adolph_hitler_speeches_and_rise_to_power
http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/riseofhitler/quiet.htm http://library.lawschool.cornell.edu/WhatWeHave/SpecialCollections/Donovan/Hitler/index.cfm http://library.lawschool.cornell.edu/WhatWeHave/SpecialCollections/Donovan/Hitler/upload/Hitler-Section3.pdf http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b2hitlergi.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cult_of_personality http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper/1691794.html http://home.ca.inter.net/~giskhan/HITLER.html



Rise of Nazi Germany
During the Great Depression, Germany began suffering in the same manner that stronger nations had been suffering. In 1928 German unemployment levels were below 2 million people. However, in only four years this number rose to over 6 million. Foreign loans were recalled and ceased. Factories stopped working. The middle class lost even more faith in the economy and the future. The hatred of the Treaty of Versailles increased. As the number of unemployed rose, people began turning to the extremes for results. Referring back to the unemployment levels in 1928, during this time period the Nazi party held 0.8 million votes. As time progressed over the next four years, the Nazi party support rose almost exponentially, reaching its peak in1933 with an astounding 17.0 million votes. This increase in popularity coincided with the worsening conditions of the Depression, indicating that a polarization of government had occurred during this time period.

Popular dissatisfaction with the Weimar republic emerged as the government began s lashing its expenses in order to deal with the economic crisis, as well as from the governments reliance on article 48, which concerned emergency rule. People of all opposing parties were able to use the economic crisis to their advantage as it showed the governments ineptitude in handling the situation. Also augmenting the oppositions position was the Treaty of Versailles, which they used to their advantage by showing how it led to their crisis. A prime example of this is the was the practices and platforms for the Nazi party prior to Nuremburg and their consolidation of power.

During this time period the German President at the time, Paul von Hindenburg, created a new government that consisted of a chancellor and several cabinet members and furthermore was able to act under the emergency powers. The first chancellor, Heinrich Brüning, proved to be unsuccessful at uniting the government and soon resigned from his post after disagreeing with his parties shift to the right. Perhaps his most noteworthy accomplishment was his decision to ban the Sturmabteilung (SA), which had weakened the Nazi's by removing their thugs. His sucessor, Franz von Papen, was quite unsuccessful, plummeting the popularity of the new government to an all-time low. In a despreate bid to increase the governments popularity with other political parties he reversed his predecessors decision to ban the SA, once again strengthening the Nazi party. After being replaced by Schleicher Papen thenset forth to undermine the position of his successor, and through a series of manuveurs with the Nazis made it so that the Nazi leadership would become the Chancellor and that he would become vice-Chancellor.

In 1933 the Reichstag fire occurred, and after the communists had taken the blame for the entire incident, Hitler, now Chancellor, began setting forth his scheme to consolidate his power. The first thing that he had done was passed the Enabling Act, which required three quarters of the government to agree to. Since many communists had fled the country after the previous elections, and with Hitler's power of pursuation he was able to convince the required amount of delegate to vote in favour of the bill. The Enabling Bill (also Enabling Act), essentially made Hitler the dictator of Germany. From this point Hitler was able to ban trade unions and replace them with the Labour Front and was able to make all other governent parties aside from the Nazi party illegal. Those who had inhabited the opposition parties were sent off to camps to work, accompanied by those who could be classified as prostitutes, homeless, the mentally challenged, gays, alcoholic, or otherwise incapable of contributing to society.

http://fcit.usf.edu/Holocaust/timeline/nazirise.htm
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERchron.htm
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERenabling.htm

Techniques Used in Maintaining Power


When the Nazi party came to power in Germany, the general public already had good opinion of Hitler and his ideals. Suffering from economic depression and mass poverty, the German population desired a change. A change to government, a change to policies, any change that would pull them out of their situation. Hitler rose as a charismatic speaker, and he won over the people with his speeches and his desire for making Germany a great power as they were prior to World War I, and thus Hitler was granted leadership of Germany. In order to achieve his vision, Hitler employed various techniques in order to stay in popular opinion, and to unify the German populace.

Propaganda
The Nazi party employed a very large propaganda campaign in order to maintain popular support. Focusing on the needs of the populace, the Nazi government campaign easily won over the troubled Germans. Simplistic slogans, such as “Ein Reich, Ein Volk, Ein Fuhrer” (meaning one empire, one people and one leader) and “Kinder, Kirche, Kuche” (meaning children, church and children in reference to the intended role of women),(citation) (http://www.socyberty.com/History/Hitlers-Power-and-Maintenance-of-Power-in-Germany-in-the-Period-1933-39.524643were highly effective in winning over the German people, raising their nationalist spirit. Speeches such as Gertrud Scholtz-Klink'sTo be a German echo this spirit in uniting Germany.Hitler’s
ideal of a “master race” also heightened the sense of nationalism. It helped to unify Germany.Propaganda became a large part of the Nazi campaign. From indoctrination of German childen to speeches made by influential figures, the whole of Germany was soon influenced by Nazi ideals, and this was an essential part for Hitler to begin his plans for his "master race".

nazi_propaganda_europas.jpg
Europe's Victory is your prosperity


"Long Live Germany!"
"Long Live Germany!"
Control of Media

Along with propaganda, the Nazi party’s control of media also aided in maintaining power in Germany. Any articles, texts, or papers written to defy the Nazi government were burned, and the writers suffered direct punishment. With the media in their control, the Nazis used this to their advantage in order to spread their propaganda. Radios, cinemas, and newspapers were all utilized to spread Nazi propaganda, and this spread Hitler’s influence.

Purges

Info plz.






Scape Goating


Scape goating is a technique that was used by Hitler in order to gain power, through the support if the German people. Scape goating is pushing the blame onto someone else, or in Germany's case, the blame was pushed onto the Jews. Scape goating began in 1933, when Hitler rose to power. He promised a rebirth of Germany, filled with economic surges and the emergence of a dominant "perfect" Aryan race. In Hitler's speeches he blamed the "november criminals" for the economic and social state of Germany after the war. The November Criminals consisted of the social democrats, and the communists. He also stated that the Jews were the masterminds of it all, pulling the strings to Germany's downfall.
This campaign was entirely successful, as Nazi Storm Troopers rallied by Hitler's speeches of a dominant race, promised to "crush the jewish republic" and violence erupted in Prussia which left 80 dead.

Hitler’s hate for Jews was disturbing; it seemed as if his mind has only swirled around wiping them out from around the world. Even before his speeches captured the German people, he was already describing his plan of actions. In this quote it was stated 11 years before he came to power.

When Hell asked Hitler what he intended doing if he ever had full freedom of action against the Jews, his response was:
"If I am ever really in power, the destruction of the Jews will be my first and most important job. As soon as I have power, I shall have gallows after gallows erected, for example, in Munich on the Marienplatz-as many of them as traffic allows. Then the Jews will be hanged one after another, and they will stay hanging until they stink. They will stay hanging as long as hygienically possible. As soon as they are untied, then the next group will follow and that will continue until the last Jew in Munich is exterminated. Exactly the same procedure will be followed in other cities until Germany is cleansed of the last Jew!" (quoted in John Toland, Adolf Hitler. London: Book Club Associates, 1977, p.116)

http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/genocide/statements.htm

Sorry =[

started in 1933 when hitler rose to pwr.
promise of ":rebirth" economic surge aryan race22
6 million jews perished
hitler's blame for economic crisis "november criminals" social democrats,commnists and jews doing it all.22
1932 violence, nazi storm troopers to crush jewish republic violence in prussia22
aryan breeds. rhard auer munich post, try to expose hitler.picture of hitler married to black woman.pg 27
many reporters killed. 26