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The Interwar Years
Interwar Years Project
League of Nations 1920-1925
Austrian Interwar Years
France during the Interwar years
The Treaty of Sevres and Neuilly
Mussolini's Conquest of Ethiopia
British Interwar Years
Hitler's Foreign Policies Prior to WW2
Origins and Development of Single Party States
Assasinations of Key Political Opponents in Stalinist Russia
Beginnings of Communist Russia
Fidel's Global Impact
Social Policies of Nazi Party
Economic Policies of Nazi Germany
Rise of the Soviet Union
Stalin's domestic policies
Stalin's foreign and domestic policies
Techniques of Dictatorships
The Soviet Union Under Stalin
Treatment of Women in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
Was Lenin Right About Stalin?
The Platt Amendment
Mao and the PRC
World War II
Compulsory Billeting WWII
Fall of France
Nazi Occupation of Defeated Countries WWII
Resistance groups during World War Two
Role of the RAF (Royal Air Force) during WW2
Role Of Women in WWII
Social Consequences of WWII
The Ardennes Offensive
The bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
the evacuation at Dunkirk
The Second Great War
The Nuremberg Trials
The Battle of Britain
The V- Weapons
The Cold War
Berlin Blockade 1948-49
Brezhnev Foreign Policy
Cold War Major Developments
Cold War Key Developments
Cold War Origins
Cold War Superpower Relations
Cold War Events Timeline
Cuban Missile Crisis 1962
End of the Cold War
Politics 1950s and 60s
Policy Changes of Nikita Khrushchev
The Berlin Wall 1961
The Soviet Union under Brezhnev
The Soviet Union Under Stalin
The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
Korean War 1950-53
The Vietnam War
Who Caused the Cold War?
Your Cold War (Interactive)
Stalin: 1941 to 1953
The Collapse of USSR
20th C. Social and Economic Developments in Europe and the Middle East
Social Policies of Nazi Party
Differences between the Aryans and the non-Aryans differentiated individuals from who were permitted to live or die. Many ‘undesirables’ such as gypsies, homosexuals and mentally-ills were condemned to die, not to mention the non-pure German blood carriers and Jews through massive exterminations known as the Holocaust.
“Descent of Man”
by Darwin, classification of human beings was accepted, even though there were some uncertain differences between the Aryans and the Semites. In Germany, words such as Germanic or Indo-Germanic were often used replacing the word Aryan. Anti-Semitic propaganda such as the
liked to contrast the Indo-Germanic with the Semitics. The European Aryans were originally distinct from the Asian Aryans and the Jews. Another racist theory was the
which stated humans came from different racial sources and that some descendants were better than the descendants of weaker sources. Fundamental foundation of human origins outlines from the theory is that the range of human types began with the Negroes and reached the far end with Germans.
Modified Polygenism Developed by Various Disciples.
The rationale behind this is well-supported by the most influential leader of the time, Adolf Hitler, through his book Mein Kampf.
“…The Jews completely lack the most essential prerequisite of a cultural people, namely the idealistic spirit…he is and remains a parasite…spreads over wider and wider …Wherever he establishes himself the people who grant him hospitality are bound to be bled to death sooner or later… he poisons the blood of others but preserves his own blood…to mask his tactics and fool his victims, he talks of the equality of all men, no matter what their race or colour may be…. He strives to ameliorate the conditions under which the workers live; but in reality his aim is to enslave and thereby annihilate the non-Jewish races…the black-haired Jewish youth lies in wait for hours on end, satanically glaring at and spying on the unsuspicious girl whom he plans to seduce, adulterating her blood and removing her from the bosom of her own people. The Jews uses every possible mean to undermine the racial foundations of a subjugated people…the Jews were responsible for bringing Negroes into the Rhineland, with the ultimate idea of bastardizing the white race which they hate and thus lowering its cultural and political level so that the Jews might dominate."
It explains what the Nazi party’s ideologies and actions were fundamentally based on. Hitler abhorred any individuals or groupings that had Jewish cultural background, as well as any individuals who were thought to be unproductive to advancement of the state. He suggests that the Jews are no more beneficial than of pests, who would return the Germans generosity by disadvantaging them. The Jews were the sources of disruption of pure inheritance of the superior blood line and brought an introduction of new group of nuisance, Negroes. Solution to deter unacceptable ambition of the Jews to ‘rule over and dominate’ the white race was to be carried out at any means and albeit they bring divine consequences during Hitler’s Nazi Germany.
Aryans have supposedly
“remained masters but he also maintained the advanced civilization”.
Any mankind could be classified into three different categories according to his belief as
“founders of culture, bearers of culture and destroyers of culture”
where the Aryans are the only representatives of the first category. If the Aryan race were descending in number, it was thought that
“a profound darkness will descend on the earth
“within a few thousand years human culture will vanish and the world will become a desert”
A law passed by Hitler’s government confiscated property that belonged to organizations that deemed disadvantageous to the state. The government revoked anyone’s citizenship without any explanation if they were thought to be undesirable.
Law for the Prevention of Progeny with Hereditary Diseases(1933)-
legalized sterilization and some of most cruel biological measures that resulted in massive euthanasia programs to get rid of lives that were considered not worth living.
Law for the Restoration of the Career Civil Service(1933)-
expelled all civil servants that were politically unreliable.
expelled all the Jews from the civil service such as professors, legal professions, and government service.
Program of Racial Hygiene (1935)-
was enforced by the Nuremberg Laws to redefine citizenship and prohibit ‘racial pollution’ Couples were to undergo medical examination and counselling before they were allowed to get married, to eliminate racial pollution.
Law for the Protection of the Genetic Health of the German People (1935)
-required for couples to submit medical examination before marriage, to catch potential racial damage before it occurred. These laws were attempts made by the Nazis to carry out their Aryan theories in practice.
Divided into two parts, the Nuremburg laws dealt with ethnicity in the Third Reich.
Reich Citizenship Law
-put distinct differences between citizens and subjects. Citizens were given right to political rights, residents belonging to the state and protection to some extent, while the subjects were given none. This law left somewhat unclear issue on who had a pure Aryan blood or of Jews. The legal definition was made that a person was defined as a Jew if they had more than 3 Jewish grandparents. If they had less than three, but still had some sort of family connection with Jews, they were called the
or half-breeds, excluding those who belonged to a Jewish religious community, or were married to a Jew, or were offspring of marriages contracted with Jews after 1935, or were born out of married state to Jews. Family researchers were employed to dig up information of family records to determine who the descendants of a Jew were. It was treated as treason to consort with anyone other than a carrier or the pure German blood. Also, abortion was considered as a crime, only if it was carried out on a German body.
Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honour-
prohibited marriages or any close-relationship between Germans and Jews. The law also forbid any Jews to display national flag and employing female German citizens less than 45 years of age. Severe penalties such as fine and imprisonment were applied to individuals who violated this law.
The Lebensborn Program
In order to create a racially pure “master race” Himmler created the Lebensborn Program, a program that aimed to increase the Germanic population in Europe. SS and Nazi officers were encouraged to have children with German and Norwegian women (Norwegian women were considered racially pure because of their Viking heritage), even if the babies were to be born out of wedlock. Girls with racially desired features were impregnated and gave birth to babies in secret. These babies were then placed in homes with Nazi officers, who oversaw their education and growth. By 1940, 70% of mothers that participated in the Lebensborn program were unmarried. Additionally, these mothers had to pass a racial purity test. S.S. Lebensborn homes became meeting places for the women of the Lebensborn program, where they were taken care of until they gave birth. In 1939, Himmler decreed that all Nazi officers should look to father as many children as possible. However, the Lebensborn program also decreed that racially pure children were to be taken from Eastern Europe, and brought back to Germany to be “Germanized”. Many of these children were taken away from their parents, and brainwashed to forget their ancestry. These children, along with the children born in Lebensborn homes, were eventually be adopted by S.S. agents. The aim of the Lebensborn program was to create a new generation of Germans, ones that would inherit Hitler’s legacy.
Germany’s nationwide economy program (1938)-
the domestic accompaniment to the foreign-political crisis. Parts of the summer violence of the year was the usage of open terror on the streets of Vienna to force the emigration of the Vienna Jews.
Another form of government-initiated anti-Semitism was to chase Jews out of German economic life, as they were considered as the major causes of harsh economic times in Germany during the interwar period. They were the obstacles to improving Germany’s economy.
“At start of 1933, there have been 50,000 Jewish businesses in Germany, and by October of 1938, only 666 foreign-citizens’ businesses have survived"
Decree of 17 August
made it obligatory for male Jews to add the middle name Israel for male and Sara for females to their existing name for all illegal matters. Eventually, all Jews were forced to have a ‘J’ stamped in their passport.
Göring, one of the Nazi Germany military leader, declared that
“the Jewish Question must now be tackled with all means available, for they [the Jews] must get out of the economy"
Karl Linz, the chairman of the German Federation of Judges, announced that
“we have placed everything in his hands (the Fuehrer’s) hand with complete confidence”
The German educational system was based on previous authoritarian traditions; almost no changes were made in its structure other than to give stronger sense of racial discrimination.
All professors were forced to join the National Socialist Teacher’s League to serve as a watchdog and report on other teachers’ behaviours and teachings. Special camps were made for all the teachers to attend to be indoctrinated for
8-14 day courses
, to focus on the expectations from the fuehrer.
All aspects of education were under control of the Nazis in a form of centralization and reorganization of schools. As Hitler notes, to breed
“absolutely healthy bodies” and “training of mental abilities
” three new specializations were emphasized throughout:
science, modern languages, and classics.
The Aryan paragraph for the Aryan racial screening as a prerequisite for public office eliminated all the Jewish teachers by the middle of 1933. Nazi educators wanted to reform the young Germans to adapt strong racist and violent modes of thinking. Loyalty, compliance and service to the state and to the Fuehrer comprised new qualities of the regime, and everyone was imposed to spiritually reform in that way. Hitler viewed the education of masses as
a “promotion of will power and determination, connected with education for joyfully assuming responsibility, and only as the last thing, scientific schooling.”
Hitler was persuaded that the influence of intellectuals was dangerous because they always destroy blind faith by questioning and arising in action:
“I don’t want intellectual education. I spoil my youth with knowledge. I would prefer to let them learn what their own playful impulse freely chooses to acquire… and prepare the coming stage of human maturation”
“Everything weak must be eliminated. My Ordensburgen [castles of order] will mould a youth from which the world will shrink in terror. I want a brutal, domineering, fearless, and cruel youth. They must endure pain; they cannot be weak and tender. The glow of free and magnificent predatory animal must thunder from their eyes…I will train them in all of the athletic sciences… It’s in this way that I am going to eliminate two thousand years of domestication. Then I’ll have a pure, noble material of nature before me of which I can create the New.”
A mandatory youth group established in 1920, the Hitler Youth, or HJ, educated young men and women to become ideal German citizens. Male and female children were divided into two separate groups, and went through rigorous physical training. Hitler’s ideological viewpoints, especially the superiority of the Aryan race, were taught at the youth groups. As well, intellectual development was frowned upon. Boys in the HJ were trained to be soldiers and girls were prepared for motherhood. Hitler believed that the Third Reich could only survive if its children were well educated in the ways of the Third Reich. Thus, Hitler’s lebensraum policy, Jewish scapegoating and Nazi ideology were stressed. Additionally, children in the HJ were encouraged to turn in parents or relatives who were unfaithful to the Further and his policies. When speaking about the HJ, Hitler was refuted to have said:
“My program for educating youth is hard. Weakness must be hammered away. In my castles of the Teutonic Order a youth will grow up before which the world will tremble. I want a brutal, domineering, fearless, cruel youth. Youth must be all that. It must bear pain. There must be nothing weak and gentle about it. The free, splendid beast of prey must once again flash from its eyes...That is how I will eradicate thousands of years of human domestication...That is how I will create the New Order."3
-- Adolf Hitler, 1933
The Aryan Myth
(New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers, 1974)
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/nurlaws.htmlhts and freedoms.html
Hitler, 1936-1945: Nemesis
(London, Allen Lane, The penguin Press, 2000)
Fischer, Klaus P.
Nazi Germany- A New History
(New York: Continuum, 1995)
Hitler, Adolf “Chapter 11: Nation and Race”
, 20 Oct. 2008 <
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