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Tthe Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) was the peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allies at the end of World War I. The Treaty of Versailles was signed with Germany before this treaty to annul the German concessions including the economic rights and enterprises.

Treaty terms
The treaty solidified the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, in accord with secret agreements among the Allied Powers.

Kingdom of Hejaz
The Kingdom of Hejaz was granted international recognition. Estimated area of 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2), and population of about 750,000. The biggest cities were Holy Places, namely, Mecca, with a population of 80,000, and Medina, with a population of 40,000. It formerly constituted the vilayet of Hejaz, but during the war became an independent kingdom under British influence.

Democratic Republic of Armenia is recognized as an established state by the signed parties. This was the first international recognition.

Ottoman Empire
The Allies were to control the Empire's finances. The financial control extended to the approval or supervision of the national budget, financial laws and regulations, and the total control on the Ottoman Bank [currency control through central bank of empire]. The Ottoman Public Debt Administration of the Ottoman Public Debt was redesigned by including only British, French and Italians. Also the capitulations of the Ottoman Empire being restored to prior to 1914. Capitulations were abolished in the first year of the war by Talaat Pasha. The control also extended to import and export duties, to the reorganization of the electoral system, and to the proportional representation of the races within the Empire. Empire was required to grant freedom of transit to persons, goods, vessels, etc., passing through her territory, and such goods transit in transit are to be free of all customs duties.Future developments of the tax system, the customs system, internal or external loans, or on concessions could not be arranged without the consent of the financial commission of the Allied powers. To forestall the economic repenetration of Germany, Austria, Hungary, or Bulgaria the treaty demanded that the Empire liquidate the property of citizens of those countries in its territories. If public liquidation will be turned over to the Reparations Commission. Property rights in Baghdad Railway passed out of German control.

Military restrictions
The Ottoman Army was to be restricted to 50,000 men; the Ottoman navy could only preserve seven sloops and six torpedo boats; and the Ottoman state was prohibited from obtaining an air force.
The treaty included an Inter-allied commission of control and organization to supervise the execution of the military clauses.

International trials
The treaty required determination of those responsible for the "barbarous and illegitimate methods of warfare… [including] offenses against the laws and customs of war and the principles of humanity". Article 230 of the Treaty of Sèvres required that the Ottoman Empire "hand over to the Allied Powers the persons whose surrender may be required by the latter as being responsible for the massacres committed during the continuance of the state of war on territory which formed part of the Ottoman Empire on August 1, 1914." However, the Inter-allied tribunal attempt demanded by the Treaty of Sèvres were eventually suspended.
[edit] France (Zone of influence)
France received Syria and neighbouring parts of Southeastern Anatolia, including Antep, Urfa and Mardin. Cilicia including Adana, Diyarbakır and large portions of East-Central Anatolia all the way up north to Sivas and Tokat were declared a zone of French influence.
[edit] Greece (Zone of Smyrna)

The expansion of Greece from 1832 to 1947, showing territories awarded to Greece by the Treaty of Sèvres but lost in 1923.
The occupation of Izmir, established Greek administration on May 21, 1919. This was followed by the declaration of a protectorate on July 30, 1922. The Treaty transferred "the exercise of her rights of sovereignty to a local parliament" but leaving the region under Ottoman Empire. According to the provisions of the Treaty, Smyrna was to be administered by a local parliament and, if within five years time she asked to be incorporated to the Kingdom of Greece, the provision was made that the League of Nations would hold a plebiscite to decide on such matters.
The treaty accepted the Greek administration of the Smyrna enclave, however its sovereignty remained, nominally, with the Sultan.
[edit] Italy (Zone of influence)
Italy was confirmed in the possession of the Dodecanese Islands (already under Italian occupation since the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912, despite the Treaty of Ouchy according to which Italy was obliged to return the islands back to the Ottoman Empire). Large portions of Southern and West-Central Anatolia (the Mediterranean coast of Turkey and the inlands) including the port city of Antalya and the historic Seljuk capital of Konya were declared an Italian zone of influence.
[edit] Kurdistan
A Kurdistan region was scheduled to have a referendum to decide its fate, which, according to Section III Articles 62–64, was to include the Mosul Province.
There was no general agreement among Kurds on what its borders should be because of the disparity between the areas of Kurdish settlement and the political and administrative boundaries of the region.[13] The outlines of a "Kurdistan" as an entity were proposed in 1919 by Şerif Pasha, who represented the Society for the Ascension of Kurdistan (Kürdistan Teali Cemiyeti) at the Paris Peace Conference. He defined the region's boundaries as follows:
"The frontiers of Turkish Kurdistan, from an ethnographical point of view, begin in the north at Ziven, on the Caucasian frontier, and continue westwards to Erzurum, Erzincan, Kemah, Arapgir, Besni and Divick (Divrik?) ; in the south they follow the line from Harran, the Sinjihar Hills, Tel Asfar, Erbil, Süleymaniye, Akk-el-man, Sinne; in the east, Ravandiz, Başkale, Vezirkale, that is to say the frontier of Persia as far as Mount Ararat."[14]
This caused controversy among other Kurdish nationalists, as it excluded the Van region (possibly as a sop to Armenian claims to that region). Emin Ali Bedirhan proposed an alternative map which included Van and an outlet to the sea via Turkey's present Hatay Province.[15] Amid a joint declaration by Kurdish and Armenian delegations, Kurdish claims on Erzurum vilayet and Sassoun (Sason) were dropped but arguments for sovereignty over Ağrı and Muş remained.[16]
Neither of these proposals was endorsed by the treaty of Sèvres, which outlined a truncated Kurdistan located on what is now Turkish territory (leaving out the Kurds of Iran, British-controlled Iraq and French-controlled Syria. However, even that plan was never implemented as the Treaty of Sèvres was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne. The current Iraq-Turkey border was agreed in July 1926.
Also article 63 grants explicitly full safeguard and protection to the Assyro-Chaldean minority. This reference was later dropped in the treaty of Lausanne.


Sevres Syndrome
Nicholas D. Kristof explains the importance of Treaty of Sèvres in the International Herald Tribune:-

How could a warm and friendly country like Turkey, which has made genuine progress on human rights and deserves a place in the European Union, be so harsh to its Kurds? Turkey's horror of a flourishing Kurdistan derives from its "Sèvres syndrome," named for the French city where Western powers tried to dismember Turkey after World War I. Ever since then, Turkey has seen accomodation as a slippery slope toward national disintegration. There has been progress toward reconciliation in recent years, but now the prospect of war in Iraq has revived old suspicions and hatreds.

That from an article headlined "Kurds are about to be betrayed - again" on page 8 of the IHT for 2003 March 15-16 (as published in Japan).

Scratching just beneath the topsoil, I discover that the British and other victors decided to chop the Ottoman state right back until it was no more than the size of a handkerchief - to reduce it to a fragment of northern Anatolia.

(Which raises the question - where's Anatolia? Maybe ten years from now we'll find ourselves on the edge of the Great Anatolian War, and we'll realize we should have all gone and educated ourselves about Anatolia long before. But life is short and history is distressingly long.)

Step Seven: enter Kemal Ataturk, Turkish military hero, who establishes modern Turkey by force of arms. The rest of the world recognizes the reality on the ground - the existence of Turkey - with the Treaty of Lausanne, in 1923. (This is the year in which Turkey is proclaimed a republic, so, by this time, if not earlier, the Ottoman Empire seems to have definitely morphed into modern Turkey.)

Step Eight: World War Two, the main consequence of which is that the global empires of France, the Netherlands and (above all) Britain are replaced by a global American Empire, which (like McDonald's) is run on a franchise system.

Step Nine: the oil in Iran gets nationalized by a gentleman named Mohammed Mossadegh, so the British and Americans get together and organize a military coup which displaces Mossadegh in 1953. Thereafter, the Shah of Iran runs the American Empire franchise in Iran. (The British seem to fade from history somewhere round about this point, although, even now, Tony Blair doesn't seem to have quite got the message that Britain's global role is over.)

Step Ten: the Shah of Iran is popular with the urban elite (because business is good) but unpopular with the poor. His secret police do quite a bit of torturing, but that's okay because he's on our side (and business is good). Reasonably enough (because, after all, Iran is now a franchise of the American Empire) hatred of the Shah generates hatred of America.

Step Eleven: the Shah is overthrown in 1979 and militants seize the American embassy, taking hostages. Iran is now America's enemy.

Step Twelve: Iran and Iraq go to war in 1980, and in this war Iraq is America's friend. The enemy of my enemy is my friend - right? There is finally a ceasefire between Iran and Iraq in September 1988.

Step Thirteen: in the autumn of 1988, Saddam Hussein, the Butcher of Baghdad starts using poison gas against the Kurds of north-eastern Iraq, who are in rebellion. However, at this stage, Saddam is not the Butcher of Baghdad. He is just a businessman who sells oil. So America goes on doing business with the guy.

Here in Japan, yesterday, on NHK, there was what looked like a balanced and objective documentary on Iraq (a dispassionate "just the facts thanks" production) which featured a document from 1988, the Prevention of Genocide Act passed by the Senate of the United States.

I didn't follow the details of the Japanese commentary, so today I've been on the Internet trying to hunt down details of this Prevention of Genocide Act. How does it fit into the picture? The history turns out to be this:-

In the United States of America, the Senate passes the Prevention of Genocide Act in 1988, by a vote of 99-0, in response to Saddam's acts of genocide against the Kurds. This bill is designed to (amongst other things) punish Saddam by killing America's oil trade with Iraq.

This is the stage at which something can be done about Saddam Hussein short of war. However, this is 1988, and Iraq is selling 123 million barrels of oil a year to American companies. Cheaply. Cheap oil! Millions and millions of barrels of it!

Money talks. Money lobbies furiously, and the Senate's bill dies a horrible death in the House of Representatives.

And Saddam remains America's good buddy right up until 1990 August 2, the day he invades Kuwait, threatening the security of the oil in the Middle East.

Now where do the Jews fit into the pattern above? I don't see that they do. If I really thought this war was going to take place because Woody Allen and other notorious warmongers were leading George Bush down the road to destruction, then I'd say so. But my guess is that the war would still be going to happen even if Israel had never existed.

George Bush obviously thinks there's a connection between Israel and the war on Iraq, since he thinks (and says that he thinks) that a successful war in Iraq will form the basis for a peaceful resolution of the problems between the Israelis and the Palestinians. But, although I happen to believe that George Bush is both sane and stone cold sober, at this point his ideation demonstrates a disconcerting disconnect between George Bush and the world of cause and effect as we know it.

Armenian Response to The Hard Lessons of Sèvres – Again (2006)
In diplomacy as in life, "the road to hell is paved with good intentions." This saying is attributed to the veteran Roman statesmen Cicero, but more often remembered as Dante's lament on the human condition. Whether Cicero or Dante, it is a lesson Armenians learned only too well in the 19th and 20th centuries. Coaxed into relying on great powers and forced to deal with fickle neighbors, their fate became a victim of good intentions.
Such was the case on August 10, eighty-six years ago, when the Treaty of Sèvres was solemnly signed by a dozen countries, including Great Britain, France, Italy, Greece, Japan, Armenia and Turkey. With great expectations, the parties commissioned US President Woodrow Wilson to draw a new map that would secure national self-determination and regional peace. He did so, but the map and treaty were not honored, at least as regards the Armenians. Despite these good intentions, Armenians lost most of their ancestral homeland to their neighbors, who continue to enjoy the fruits of their genocidal labors.
Karabakh is yet another case in point. With promises of a lasting diplomatic solution in the aftermath of WWI, the British induced the Armenians to forego their successful efforts to liberate Artsakh. Eighty years later, the situation is not resolved. In the meantime, generations of Armenians were sacrificed to unfulfilled promises and Soviet gerrymandering and misrule. In the waning years of the Soviet empire, lawful Armenian aspirations for democracy and self-rule in Artsakh were answered by Azeri violence. Before long, neighboring Turkey joined in with blockades and more. However, this time the Armenians did not stop short. They successfully defended themselves against the Turkish ethnic alliance. Unlike the quagmires in the Balkans, Iraq, Somalia, Darfur and Lebanon, neither US nor European blood was shed in order to restore the peace or to protect the Armenians of Karabagh, who have wisely chosen de facto independence as the best guarantee of their security. For this alone, the world’s bystanders should be grateful.
Like most do-gooders, great nations are often distracted, and despite their best intentions, they leave a trail of devastation in their wake. Ignoring the fundamental rule of any humanitarian intervention-- "first, do no harm," they become impatient with "petty matters" of small peoples and urge them to make compromises without calculating the consequences.
History has taught Armenians to be wary and self-reliant. They learned long ago that good intentions (their own and others') are not enough to avoid bad outcomes. And when there are bad outcomes, the well-intentioned advocates often blame the victim, pass the buck and take bureaucratic cover. Indeed, when they are not totally oblivious, the most they can manage is condolences, after it is too late.
Armenians have laid too many wreaths on the graves of valiant citizen soldiers and innocent civilians. Too much of their heritage, heartland and culture has been wrenched from them in internationally brokered concessions aimed at appeasing their unrepentant neighbors. They cannot be expected to accept peace plans for Artsakh without concrete benefits and real assurances. This time, good intentions will not be enough. Once again, it is being brought home to Armenians the hard way that good intentions, however sincere, never were enough.

Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920)
Ottoman Empire renamed Turkey
Territory shrunk:
Created the Kingdom of Hejaz (later Saudi Arabia)
Created Armenia
Greece and Italy got territorial gains
Mandates were given to:
Britain –
France –

Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920)
Allies controlled the Empire’s finances
Everyone was to be granted free transit through the Empire
Goods in transit were to be free of customs duties
Property of citizens from Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Bulgaria was to be liquidated
Army reduced to 50,000, reduced navy, reduced air force
Were supposed to give up the people responsible for committing massacres during the war to an Allied Tribunal, but this was never executed
The Dardanelle Straits were to be open in both peace and war

Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Sevres (Aug. 1920)
Results –
Created areas under Western control that were nationalistic and sought their autonomy

The nationalist government in Ankara rejected the terms of the treaty and resisted the Greek army's advance into the area assigned to Greece in Western Anatolia, and its further unilateral advance towards Ankara. Following the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) and the disastrous defeat of the Greek forces, a peace agreement was signed with the Soviet Union. These events forced the former wartime Allies to return to the negotiating table, and the terms of Sèvres were revised in Turkey's favor by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

Fostered resentment of the occupying Western forces
Some Middle Eastern countries, like Iran, would create a good relationship with Germany
Didn’t resolve the issue over a Jewish homeland

Political Effects After WWI –
Treaty of Neuilly (Nov. 1919)
Bulgaria established borders over contested territories
Reduce army to 20,000
Pay reparations of over $400 million
Results – Resentment over the loss of lands led them to occupy them with the Nazis during WWII

The Treaty of Sèvres imposed terms so severe that British policy seemed to have succeeded in strangling the sick man of Europe in his sick-bed in Asia Mino

Treaty of Sevres
Peace treaty concluded in 10th of August 1920 after World War I at Sevres, France, between the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), on the one hand, and the Allies (excluding Russia and the United States) on the other. The treaty, which liquidated the Ottoman Empire and virtually abolished Turkish sovereignty, followed in the main the decisions reached at San Remo.
In Asia, Turkey renounced sovereignty over Mesopotamia (Iraq) and Palestine (including Trans - Jordan), which became British mandates; Syria (including Lebanon), which became a French mandate; and the kingdom of Hejaz. Turkey retained Anatolia but was to grant autonomy to Kurdistan. Armenia became a separate republic under international guarantees, and Smyrna (modern Izmir) and its environs was placed under Greek administration pending a plebiscite to determine its permanent status.
In Europe, Turkey ceded parts of Eastern Thrace and certain Aegean islands to Greece, and the Dodecanese and Rhodes to Italy, retaining only Constantinople (modern Istanbul) and its environs, including the Zone of the Straits (Dardanelles and Bosphorus), which was neutralized and internationalized. The Allies further obtained virtual control over the Turkish economy with the capitulation rights.
The treaty was accepted by the government of Sultan Mehmed Vahdettin VI at Istanbul but was rejected by the rival nationalist government of Kemal Atatürk at Ankara. Atatürk's separate treaty with the USSR and his subsequent victories against the Greeks during the War of Independence forced the Allies to negotiate a new treaty in 1923 (Treaty of Lausanne).

Treaty of Sevres -> Turkey Independence

Treaty of Neuilly

In Bulgaria, the results of the treaty are popularly known as the Second National Catastrophe. Bulgaria regained South Dobrudja as a result of the Treaty of Craiova and during World War II
World War II

World War II, or the Second World War , was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including all great powers, organized into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

together with Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany and the Third Reich are the common English names for Germany between 1933 and 1945, while it was led by Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Worker's Party . The name Third Reich refers to the state as the successor to the Holy Roman Empire of the Middle Ages and the German...

, temporarily reoccupied most of the other territories ceded by the trea

In September 1918, Tsar Ferdinand abdicated in favour of his son Boris III in order to head off anti-monarchic revolutionary tendencies. Under the Treaty of Neuilly (November 1919) Bulgaria ceded its Aegean coastline to Greece, recognized the existence of Yugoslavia, ceded nearly all of its Macedonian territory to that new state, and had to give Dobrudzha back to Romania. The country had to reduce its army to no more than 22,000 men, and to pay reparations exceeding $400 million. Bulgarians generally refer to the results of the treaty as the "Second National Catastrophe".[7][8]
Elections in March 1920 gave the Agrarians a large majority, and Aleksandar Stamboliyski formed Bulgaria's first peasant government. He faced huge social problems, but succeeded in carrying out many reforms, although opposition from the middle and upper classes, the landlords and the officers of the army remained powerful. In March 1923, Stamboliyski signed an agreement with the Kingdom of Yugoslavia recognizing the new border and agreeing to suppress Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (VMRO), which favoured a war to regain Macedonia from Bulgaria. This triggered a nationalist reaction, and the Bulgarian coup d'état of 9 June 1923 eventually resulted in Stamboliykski's assassination. A right-wing government under Aleksandar Tsankov took power, backed by the army and the VMRO, which waged a White terror against the Agrarians and the Communists. In 1926, the Tsar persuaded Tsankov to resign, a more moderate government under Andrey Lyapchev took office and an amnesty was proclaimed, although the Communists remained banned. A popular alliance including the re-organised Agrarians won elections in 1931 under the name "Popular Bloc".