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Tuesday, September 3

  1. page League of Nations 1920-1925 edited ... Brief Summary of the Major conflicts avoided through the League of Nations Corfu, 1923 {htt…
    ...
    Brief Summary of the Major conflicts avoided through the League of Nations
    Corfu, 1923
    {http://www.world-guides.com/images/greece/greece_map2.jpg}
    The Dispute:
    An Italian general was killed while he was doing some work for the League in Greece. The Italian leader Mussolini was angry with the Greeks. He invaded the Greek island of Corfu, which Mossolini saw as acceptable for their was a considerable Italian population living there.
    ...
    This decision was internationally criticized: in effect the world community had accepted Italy's aggression against Greece, instead of protecting the smaller country.
    In Corfu during the first quarter of the twentieth century, many Italian operas were performed at the Municipal Theatre of Corfu. This tradition came to a halt following the Corfu incident. After the bombardment the theatre featured Greek operas as well as Greek theater performances by distinguished Greek actors such as Marika Kotopouli and Pelos Katselis.
    ...
    Islands (1921)
    These islands are near enough equal distant between Finland and Sweden. They had traditionally belonged to Finland but most of the islanders wanted to be governed by Sweden. Neither Sweden nor Finland could come to a decision as to who owned the islands and in 1921 they asked the League to adjudicate. The League’s decision was that they should remain with Finland but that no weapons should ever be kept there. Both countries accepted the decision and it remains in force to this day.
    ...
    Silesia (1921)
    The Treaty of Versailles had given the people of Upper Silesia the right to have a referendum on whether they wanted to be part of Germany or part of Poland. In this referendum, 700,000 voted for Germany and 500,000 for Poland. This close result resulted in rioting between those who expected Silesia to be made part of Germany and those who wanted to be part of Poland. The League was asked to settle this dispute. After a six-week inquiry, the League decided to split Upper Silesia between Germany and Poland. The League’s decision was accepted y both countries and by the people in Upper Silesia.
    Memel (1923)
    Memel was/is a port in Lithuania. Most people who lived in Memel were Lithuanians and, therefore, the government of Lithuania believed that the port should be governed by it. However, the Treaty of Versailles had put Memel and the land surrounding the port under the control of the League. For three years, a French general acted as a governor of the port but in 1923 the Lithuanians invaded the port. The League intervened and gave the area surrounding Memel to Lithuania but they made the port an "international zone". Lithuania agreed to this decision. Though this can be seen as a League success – as the issue was settled – a counter argument is that what happened was the result of the use of force and that the League responded in a positive manner to those (the Lithuanians) who had used force.
    Turkey (1923)
    The League failed to stop a bloody war in Turkey (see League failures) but it did respond to the humanitarian crisis caused by this war.
    1,400,000 refugees had been created by this war with 80% of them being women and children. Typhoid and cholera were rampant. The League sent doctors from the Health Organisation to check the spread of disease and it spent £10 million on building farms, homes etc for the refugees. Money was also invested in seeds, wells and digging tools and by 1926, work was found for 600,000 people.
    ...
    Greece and Bulgaria (1925)
    Both these nations have a common border. In 1925, sentries patrolling this border fired on one another and a Greek soldier was killed. The Greek army invaded Bulgaria as a result. The Bulgarians asked the League for help and the League ordered both armies to stop fighting and that the Greeks should pull out of Bulgaria. The League then sent experts to the area and decided that Greece was to blame and fined her £45,000. Both nations accepted the decision.
    ...
    of Nations
    Article 11 of the League’s Covenant stated:
    "Any war of threat of war is a matter of concern to the whole League and the League shall take action that may safe guard peace."
    Therefore, any conflict between nations which ended in war and the victor of one over the other must be considered a League failure.
    Italy (1919)
    In 1919, Italian nationalists, angered that the "Big Three" had, in their opinion, broken promises to Italy at the Treaty of Versailles, captured the small port of Fiume. This port had been given to Yugoslavia by the Treaty of Versailles. For 15 months, Fiume was governed by an Italian nationalist called d’Annunzio. The newly created League did nothing. The situation was solved by the Italian government who could not accept that d’Annunzio was seemingly more popular than they were – so they bombarded the port of Fiume and enforced a surrender. In all this the League played no part despite the fact that it had just been set up with the specific task of maintaining peace.
    Teschen (1919)
    Teschen was a small town between Poland and Czechoslovakia. Its main importance was that it had valuable coal mines there which both the Poles and the Czechs wanted. As both were newly created nations, both wanted to make their respective economies as strong as possible and the acquisition of rich coal mines would certainly help in this respect.
    In January 1919, Polish and Czech troops fought in the streets of Teschen. Many died. The League was called on to help and decided that the bulk of the town should go to Poland while Czechoslovakia should have one of Teschen’s suburbs. This suburb contained the most valuable coal mines and the Poles refused to accept this decision. Though no more wholesale violence took place, the two countries continued to argue over the issue for the next twenty years.
    Vilna (1920)
    Many years before 1920, Vilna had been taken over by Russia. Historically, Vilna had been the capital of Lithuania when the state had existed in the Middle Ages. After World War One, Lithuania had been re-established and Vilna seemed the natural choice for its capital.
    However, by 1920, 30% of the population was from Poland with Lithuanians only making up 2% of the city’s population. In 1920, the Poles seized Vilna. Lithuania asked for League help but the Poles could not be persuaded to leave the city. Vilna stayed in Polish hands until the outbreak of World War Two. The use of force by the Poles had won.
    ...
    to 1921)
    In 1920, Poland invaded land held by the Russians. The Poles quickly overwhelmed the Russian army and made a swift advance into Russia. By 1921, the Russians had no choice but to sign the Treaty of Riga which handed over to Poland nearly 80,000 square kilometres of Russian land. This one treaty all but doubled the size of Poland.
    What did the League do about this violation of another country by Poland?
    The answer is simple – nothing. Russia by 1919 was communist and this "plague from the East" was greatly feared by the West. In fact, Britain, France and America sent troops to attack Russia after the League had been set up. Winston Churchill, the British War Minister, stated openly that the plan was to strangle Communist Russia at birth. Once again, to outsiders, it seemed as if League members were selecting which countries were acceptable and ones which were not. The Allied invasion of Russia was a failure and it only served to make Communist Russia even more antagonistic to the West.
    ...
    Ruhr (1923)
    The Treaty of Versailles had ordered Wiemer Republic to pay reparations for war damages. These could either be paid in money or in kind (goods to the value of a set amount) In 1922, the Germans failed to pay an installment. They claimed that they simply could not rather than did not want to. The Allies refused to accept this and the anti-German feeling at this time was still strong. Both the French and the Belgium’s believed that some form of strong action was needed to ‘teach Germany a lesson’.
    In 1923, contrary to League rules, the French and the Belgium’s invaded the Ruhr – Germany’s most important industrial zone. Within Europe, France was seen as a senior League member – like Britain – and the anti-German feeling that was felt throughout Europe allowed both France and Belgium to break their own rules as were introduced by the League. Here were two League members clearly breaking League rules and nothing was done about it.
    For the League to enforce its will, it needed the support of its major backers in Europe, Britain and France. Yet France was one of the invaders and Britain was a major supporter of her. To other nations, it seemed that if you wanted to break League rules, you could. Few countries criticised what France and Belgium did. But the example they set for others in future years was obvious. The League clearly failed on this occasion, primarily because it was seen to be involved in breaking its own rules.
    ...
    Albania (1923)
    The border between Italy and Albania was far from clear and the Treaty of Versailles had never really addressed this issue. It was a constant source of irritation between both nations.
    In 1923, a mixed nationality survey team was sent out to settle the issue. Whilst travelling to the disputed area, the Italian section of the survey team, became separated from the main party. The five Italians were shot by gunmen who had been in hiding.
    Italy accused Greece of planning the whole incident and demanded payment of a large fine. Greece refused to pay up. In response, the Italians sent its navy to the Greek island of Corfu and bombarded the coastline. Greece appealed to the League for help but Italy, lead by Benito Mussolini, persuaded the League via the Conference of Ambassadors, to fine Greece 50 million lire.
    To follow up this success, Mussolini invited the Yugoslavian government to discuss ownership of Fiume. The Treaty of Versailles had given Fiume to Yugoslavia but with the evidence of a bombarded Corfu, the Yugoslavs handed over the port to Italy with little argument
    ...
    of Nations
    At a social level the League did have success and most of this is easily forgotten with its failure at a political level. Many of the groups that work for the United Nations now, grew out of what was established by the League. Teams were sent to the Third World to dig fresh water wells, the Health Organisation started a campaign to wipe out leprosy. This idea - of wiping out from the world a disease - was taken up by the United Nations with its smallpox campaign.
    Work was done in the Third World to improve the status of women there and child slave labour was also targeted. Drug addiction and drug smuggling were also attacked.
    (view changes)
    3:35 pm

Thursday, January 27

  1. page Cold War Origins edited Analyze the responsibility of the USA and USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War up …
    Analyze the responsibility of the USA and USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War up to 1945.
    The Orthodox View: (e.g. Arthur Schlesinger)
    http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/ahas/cworigins_historiography.html
    The Revisionist View: (e.g. W.A. Williams)
    http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/ahas/cworigins_historiography.html
    (view changes)
    5:37 pm
  2. page Cold War Origins edited Analyze the responsibility of the USA and USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War up …
    Analyze the responsibility of the USA and USSR for the outbreak and development of the Cold War up to 1945.
    The Orthodox View: (e.g. Arthur Schlesinger)
    The Orthodox viewpoint on the origin of the Cold War began to take form after the deterioration of relations between the superpowers after the Potsdam Conference in World War II. The main objective in this viewpoint is to essentially blame the Soviet system for causing the increase in tension between the two nations and for escalation of the arms race. This ideology states that the cause of the superpower rivalry results from the intransigent nature of the Marxist-Leninist ideology as well as the very nature of the totalitarian state that had been created by Stalin. It was for these reasons that the Soviet system was considered inherently expansionistic, and furthermore represented a threat to the American interests in foreign nations as well as at home. Other factors that this theory suggests for the cause of the Cold War were the particular nature of Stalin, who was portrayed as an unruly diplomat and brutal tyrant. The conclusion to this viewpoint was the notion that collaboration between the two superpowers would be impossible after World War II due to the incommensurable ideologies each side possessed. This was the predominant viewpoint carried by most people until the Revisionist view emerged during the 1960s.
    This viewpoint of the origin of the Cold War holds that it emerged as a result of the expansion of the Soviet Union into Eastern Europe, the fall of China to communism that followed in 1949, and the entire Korean conflict. This expansionistic policy of socialism, when combined with the deterioration in relations with the Soviet Union after the Potsdam conference as well as the rise of McCarthyism and its anti-communist stance is what was believed to have caused the Cold War. This theory goes on to state that the United States was forced into action due to the threats posed by the expansion of socialism, and that the United States had hoped for peace between the two nations after World War II but due to Soviet actions this would be impossible.
    http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/ahas/cworigins_historiography.html

    The Revisionist View: (e.g. W.A. Williams)
    The Revisionist view emerged in the 1960s at the time of the Vietnam War; a time when many individuals began blaming the United States for the occurence of the Cold War as they found flaws in the American system. Revisionists argued that the Russians were reacting to agressive American demands for markets and political access in Russia. Revisionists saw US foreign policy as being imperialistic and that in order for capitalism to survive, it needed foreign markets. America wished to enhance its economic interests and for that reason, the exclusion of the Soviet Union from the Marshall Plan occured. The US did not wish to pay for the reconstruction of the Soviet Union (would be detremental to the United States' economy). In order to ensure the Soviet Union was to not take part of the Marshall Plan, all who took part of the plan had to reform to democratic capitalism.
    Revisionists also believed that the personality of key figures in the Cold War such as Truman, had an impact on the Cold War. One of the major reasons for the Cold War was Truman's possession of the atomic bomb and his decision to drop the bomb on Hiroshima. He had done this to send a message to Stalin on the US' position of power (US relied on threat to use nuclear weapons to maintain military superiority). The atomic bomb led to the want to maintain balance of power as Stalin wished to also gain power by also building the atomic bomb (the start of the arms race, an important element of the Cold War). Tihs theory also holds that through the United States' creation of the perception of a foreign enemy it enabled the United States government to maintain and then further their own power on the home front.
    Arising during the Vietnam War, this theory was highly critical of the United States government instead of the Soviet Union, a major breaking with the notion that the conflict was the Soviet Union’s fault. First and foremost, this theory exonerated the Soviet Union in its spread into Eastern Europe by stating that it was doing what any other nation in its position would do, they were looking after their own interests. Peter Bastian, a professor at the Australian Catholic University does a remarkable job at stating how the United States was at fault for the conflict when he wrote:
    “In any event, the Russians were often merely reacting to what the revisionists portrayed as aggressive American demands for business markets and political access into this region. According to the revisionists, the United States dominated Western Europe and expected to do the same over the Eastern half of the continent despite legitimate Russian security interests.”
    This theory stated that it was due to the United States policy of interventionism and universalism that caused the Cold War, not inherent characteristics of the Soviet ideology. Due to the characteristics of democratic capitalism, in this case the demand for foreign markets and raw materials, the Americans were legitimizing their own imperialistic policies. The American administration then created the perception of a foreign enemy in order to justify their actions abroad as well as justify the maintenance and extension of the power of their own government. Moderate Revisionist thinkers do not believe that it was the institutions that are at fault for the Cold War, but rather the politicians who lead them. They belief that, as an example, had Roosevelt lived longer or was replaced someone of a similar temperament the Cold War would not have occurred.

    http://www.anzasa.arts.usyd.edu.au/ahas/cworigins_historiography.html
    The Post-Revisionist View: (e.g. J.R. Starobin)
    ...
    1944
    January
    ...
    German occupied Poland.Poland. German forces
    March
    Red Army forces advance into Belorussia.
    ...
    This poster was created half-way through 1941 by the British Ministry of Information, who's job was to provide information, such as rationing, etc to the public as well the Ministry was meant to help boost British moral which pretty much means they produced propaganda. At this point in the war the British was fighting the Axis pretty much alone and the Soviet Union was being assaulted by the Germans in operation Barbarossa. Because of this the two were able to ignore (temporarily) the troubles between the two nations and unite to fight a common enemy, Germany. The term Fascism was used by the Soviets to describe Germans even though Fascism came from Italy, but the Nazis have some traits similar to Fascism such as the concept of the superior race and the hatred against communists.
    {c1_s2.jpg} "Greetings to the heroic warrior of the Soviet Union from British allies fighting with him" Created by the British Ministry of Information
    ...
    Axis forces.
    There was a report by British officials in Moscow that reported on Soviet newspaper reactions to the Tehran Conference. The British stationed officials in both the United States and the USSR to study the media of their particular country. The report stated that the Soviet newspapers and people showed large levels of enthusiasm and agreement with the conference and its declaration. This is well indicated by the notes on several Soviet papers such as "'Pravda' says that the Conference was a logical development of the closest friendship and collaboration between the US, UK and USSR, forged during the war.", "'Izvestiza' says that anyone who reads the Declaration will realize that the outcome of the war has been decided beyond doubt." and the "'Red Star' says that the Declaration proves the complete failure of Hitler's strategy.". It is important to note that Soviet newspapers are censored by the government so the papers reflected the opinions of the Communist party. Also note that the declaration stated that, along with an alliance against the Axis, that the Allies stays "friends" after the war.
    {3.jpg} A Propaganda Poster by the British Ministry of Information
    ...
    Learning Curve: Potsdam: Historical Source Three: Extract from an article in the British journal The Economist, August 11th 1945
    Now, after reviewing these sources, did these events lead to the Cold War where a nuclear holocaust may have come into being or was everything covered on this page just powder that needed an ignition source to cause the Cold War? If so what/who is this source? Was it Stalin (Popular belief that the leader of the Soviet Union caused the Cold War), Truman (USA) or/and Churchill? To answer this we must analyze the actions of each leader/country after the Second World War. To continue the studies of my (Marcin's) Cold War project please refer to the page "Who Caused the Cold War?"

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    5:34 pm

Wednesday, June 30

  1. 9:31 am

Wednesday, June 9

  1. page Interwar Years Project edited ... -Several Pacific islands (including modern day Maianas, Marshall Islands, Palau, Micronesia) …
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    -Several Pacific islands (including modern day Maianas, Marshall Islands, Palau, Micronesia)
    (I'll look for more info relating to impacts/development)
    Effect of US Not Joining League of Nations:
    •Woodrow Wilson was beat out by republicans who wanted to practice isolationism, they were still uneasy about WWI.•Some such as Senator Henry Cabot, led a group of United States senators (republicans) who feared that the US would end up in another world war should the League try to enforce all of it’s rules and restrictions.•Without the US, the league had little funding, little power and almost half the army it could have had.•Without the most powerful country in the world, the league had little to no authority depending on the situation

    TREATY ENFORCEMENT
    Certain treaties failed to reach their respective aims mainly due to the lack of enforcement of their provisions.
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    6:24 pm

Tuesday, June 8

  1. page Interwar Years Project edited ... In the factories that the French took control of in the Ruhr the French ordered them to contin…
    ...
    In the factories that the French took control of in the Ruhr the French ordered them to continue productivity however, this caused a passive resistance movement to start and spread quickly. It became clear that the French would not be able to gain reparation payments by working the German industries. Poincaré announced that he would withdraw from the Ruhr at the same pace as the German government would make their reparation payments.
    It took twelve months for the British and with the support of the American’s to convince Poincaré to create a committee to examine the question of German’s capacity to pay back its reparations. Due to the occupation of the Ruhr by the French this lead to a complete stop of all German Reparation payments which also lead to poverty among the striking workers. From the economic problems occurring in the Ruhr that was caused by the French the German government began to print money to pay subsistence wages to the two million workers who had down tools. This lead to hyperinflation which caused the mark to lose value and by August was worth one forth of what it did at the start of April. In the Ruhr towns many problems were arising and both the right and left wing extremist were attempting to make capital through this hard time.
    ...
    in 1914.
    (This is all I have right now, but there is still more to come)

    League of Nation Mandates
    “Wilson’s new world order called for some arrangement other than annexation or colonization for those parts of the world not yet ready to govern themselves.Mandates, a form of trusteeship either directly under the League of Nations or under powers to be mandated by the League, were proposed as a possible solution. The length of a mandate would depend on the progress made by their wards.
    ...
    respect for marking of medical personel transports and equipment using an emblem( red cross on back)
    Locarno Spring (not Lacarno)
    ...
    allied nations.
    Stresemann’s goals in this security pact was to revise its eastern frontier (the boarders with Poland and Czechoslovakia), improve its relations with Great Britain and France, and the withdrawal of the Allied Control Commission and Allied Occupation in the Rhineland (reverse the effects of the treaty of Versailles). Stresemann was willing to negotiate the western frontier with France and create a clear, secured boarder, but was unwilling to make any commitment in securing and maintaining the Eastern frontier. France on the other hand was not willing in signing any treaty with Germany unless Germany would become of member of the League of Nations. France had severe suspicions that Germany would attempt to invade again which caused great animosity between the two nations when trying to create a security pact.
    ...
    Locarno Spring.
    Terms
    · Belgium, France and Germany accept each others boarders especially of the boarders of the Rhineland
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    9:07 pm
  2. page Interwar Years Project edited ... (I'll look for more info relating to impacts/development) TREATY ENFORCEMENT ... their pro…
    ...
    (I'll look for more info relating to impacts/development)
    TREATY ENFORCEMENT
    ...
    their provisions.
    First,

    First,
    the Washington
    ...
    of the
    Second,

    Second,
    the French
    ...
    the Treaty.
    Third,

    Third,
    the Locarno
    ...
    all signatories.
    U.S. ISOLATIONISM
    *GEOPOLITICAL IMPACTS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    ...
    mulitlateral nature open to all states the obligation to extend care with out discriminationg to wounded sick and military personell
    respect for marking of medical personel transports and equipment using an emblem( red cross on back)
    Locarno Spring (not Lacarno)
    Following the crisis and major economic impacts of the Ruhr Crisis (1923) and the Dawes Plan (1924) on Germany and Western Europe, Gustav Stresemann, the Chancellor of Germany, sought out the revive Germany from the implications imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty had caused Germany to pay reparations to the allied nations such as France that caused a major crippling of the German economy. There was also the demilitarization of the Rhineland which caused a rise in Germany’s anxieties in protecting its western and eastern frontiers. Their fears where proven true when France invaded Ruhr in order to take over the coal mines to continue the payments of the reparations imposed by the Treaty of Versailles. With the economic crisis that followed the Ruhr crisis and the dependency on the USA through the Dawes plans Stresemann, in order to regain German power in a global setting had to seek a security pact with the allied nations and to improve relations with the allied nations.
    Stresemann’s goals in this security pact was to revise its eastern frontier (the boarders with Poland and Czechoslovakia), improve its relations with Great Britain and France, and the withdrawal of the Allied Control Commission and Allied Occupation in the Rhineland (reverse the effects of the treaty of Versailles). Stresemann was willing to negotiate the western frontier with France and create a clear, secured boarder, but was unwilling to make any commitment in securing and maintaining the Eastern frontier. France on the other hand was not willing in signing any treaty with Germany unless Germany would become of member of the League of Nations. France had severe suspicions that Germany would attempt to invade again which caused great animosity between the two nations when trying to create a security pact.
    What was decided upon was a security pact that was signed between Belgium, France and Germany, with Great Britain and Italy as guarantors of the Pact. It was held in Locarno, Switzerland in 1925, which thus became known as the Locarno Spring.
    Terms
    · Belgium, France and Germany accept each others boarders especially of the boarders of the Rhineland
    · Great Britain and Italy would become guarantors of the western boarders, and would intervene if Belgium, France or Germany acted in aggression against any other states.
    · The Western Frontier would be taken under the protection of the League of Nations, in the case of any breaches of the western boarders
    · Germany would become a member of the League of Nations
    Results
    · Non aggression forms between Germany, France and Belgium boarders
    · Germany is given sovereign acknowledgment to the imposition of the Treaty of Versailles
    · Arbitration conventions and treaties are held between France, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Belgium but Germany continues to refuse to recognise the Eastern Frontier and neither Great Britain or Italy want to be guarantors for those boarder
    · Germany continues on after Locarno Spring removing the influence of the Treaty of Versailles, such as the remilitarization of the Rhineland and increase arms production
    After the events at Locarno Germany went into the removal of the penalties of the treaty of Versailles without the interruption from any other states, this is because France pulled out its forces for enforcing the treaty and Germany is allowed to be given power on the international stage by becoming a member of the League of Nations. Overall the effects of the Locarno Spring were to improve relations between states, but in fact increased tensions between the countries. France’s suspicions of Germany increased and they soon began to remake alliances with Poland and Czechoslovakia so that France would have support in what they assumed to be Germany’s inevitable invasion. Locarno was simply an idealized attempt at collective security that undermined the League of Nations and promoted the dismantling of the treaty of Versailles.
    Sources: Henry Kissinger, Democracy, (Simon&Schuster Paperbacks: New Yo
    ork), pg. 273
    http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/World/Locarno.CP.htm

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    8:28 pm
  3. page Interwar Years Project edited ... -Several Pacific islands (including modern day Maianas, Marshall Islands, Palau, Micronesia) …
    ...
    -Several Pacific islands (including modern day Maianas, Marshall Islands, Palau, Micronesia)
    (I'll look for more info relating to impacts/development)
    TREATY ENFORCEMENT
    Certain treaties failed to reach their respective aims mainly due to the lack of enforcement of their provisions.
    First, the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 intended to prevent an arms race between the naval powers at the time. This disarmament would, then, lead to peace in that aggression at sea would be made less likely to occur due to the lack of arms available for use. Terms included the limits of ships (in terms of tonnage and gun capability), the ceasing of building programmes and the rules for disposing and transfer of arms. No signatory could build arms, which exceeded the limits as dictated by the treaty, for non-signatories. Existing ships that violated the terms of the treaty could not be disposed of via the giving of ‘gifts’ to other nations. The treaty also covered limitations on the building and possession of aircraft carriers. All in agreement with the terms, the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, France and Italy signed the treaty and went about adhering to the terms. However, the treaty resulted in Italy’s disregard for the treaty and Japan opting out of the London Treaty for naval arms reduction that followed in 1930 which was drawn up for the purpose of adjusting the terms of the Washington Treaty. The lack of enforcement contributed to the failure of the
    Second, the French ensured that the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles were enforced. As Germany was forced to accept guilt for the war, they were obligated to pay reparations for the rebuilding of destroyed countries during the Great War. However, when Germany was unable to pay due to their own economic problems, they appealed for a delay of the reparation payments. The French, on the other hand, decided to take matters into their hands and move into the Ruhr area of the Weimar Republic. This was done in order to make sure that the Germans adhered to the terms of the Treaty.
    Third, the Locarno treaties were pacts agreed upon by participating nations not to resort to war in the event of conflict between them. With the beginning of the Second World War, the failure of the treaties was realized because part of the agreement is of non-aggression between Germany, The United Kingdom, Italy, France and Belgium. Moreover, Germany agreed to seek arbitration should they clash against Poland and Czechoslovakia. Instead, Germany eventually entered both nations with aggressive means. The treaties were ultimately unsuccessful due to the lack of enforcement due to appeasement and the absence of forces to guarantee the obedience of all signatories.

    U.S. ISOLATIONISM
    *GEOPOLITICAL IMPACTS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES
    ...
    In 1864 international conference of 13 nations took place in Geneva to discuss the possibility of making warfare more "humane". At the end of the conference on 22nd August, 1864, the representatives signed the agreement known as the Geneva convention. The agreement provided for the neutrality of ambulance and military hospitals, the non-belligerent status of persons who aid the wounded, and sick soldiers of any nationality, the return of prisoners to their country if they are incapable of serving, and the adoption of a white flag with a red cross for use on hospitals, ambulances, and evacuation centres whose neutrality would be recognized by this symbol.
    The campaign then began to persuade the different countries to ratify the Convention. It was approved by Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Spain and Switzerland in 1864. They were followed by Britain (1865), Prussia (1865), Greece (1865), Turkey (1865), Austria (1866), Portugal (1866), Russia (1867), Persia (1874), Serbia (1876), Chile (1879), Argentina (1879) and Peru (1880).
    ...
    they achived:
    Standing written rules of universal scope to protect the victims of conflicts
    mulitlateral nature open to all states the obligation to extend care with out discriminationg to wounded sick and military personell
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    6:15 pm
  4. page Interwar Years Project edited ... Geneva convention 1864 the 1864 geneva convention layed the foundations for the current human…
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    Geneva convention 1864
    the 1864 geneva convention layed the foundations for the current humanitarian law it is characterized by:
    it was built on the basis that " Every government must, within the limits of its domestic policy, take such action as it shall deem best, either to facilitate the organization of Volunteer Sanitary Commissions, or to merely tolerate them.
    In 1864 international conference of 13 nations took place in Geneva to discuss the possibility of making warfare more "humane". At the end of the conference on 22nd August, 1864, the representatives signed the agreement known as the Geneva convention. The agreement provided for the neutrality of ambulance and military hospitals, the non-belligerent status of persons who aid the wounded, and sick soldiers of any nationality, the return of prisoners to their country if they are incapable of serving, and the adoption of a white flag with a red cross for use on hospitals, ambulances, and evacuation centres whose neutrality would be recognized by this symbol.
    The campaign then began to persuade the different countries to ratify the Convention. It was approved by Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Spain and Switzerland in 1864. They were followed by Britain (1865), Prussia (1865), Greece (1865), Turkey (1865), Austria (1866), Portugal (1866), Russia (1867), Persia (1874), Serbia (1876), Chile (1879), Argentina (1879) and Peru (1880).
    the main goals reached by the Geneva convetion were writen on the basis of making war "Humane" and they achived:

    Standing written rules of universal scope to protect the victims of conflicts
    ...
    and military personelpersonell
    respect for marking of medical personel transports and equipment using an emblem( red cross on back)
    it was built on the basis that " Every government must, within the limits of its domestic policy, take such action as it shall deem best, either to facilitate the organization of Volunteer Sanitary Commissions, or to merely tolerate them. On this subject each Government must have perfect liberty of action. There can be no outside dictation or pressure exercised to compel any Government to execute any stipulation covering this ground. At present, there is no question involved as to the formation of Voluntary Relief Associations, nor of any alterations in or interference with the consecrated military code of nations, which would certainly be calculated to create embitterment or distrust. Those who have entertained a contrary impression, are completely in error in regard to our purposes and aims. And if it has been these fears which have prevented several States from sending delegates to our Congress, I cannot help expressing a profound regret."
    In 1864 the five men organized an international conference of 13 nations in Geneva to discuss the possibility of making warfare more "humane". At the end of the conference on 22nd August, 1864, the representatives signed the Geneva Convention. The agreement provided for the neutrality of ambulance and military hospitals, the non-belligerent status of persons who aid the wounded, and sick soldiers of any nationality, the return of prisoners to their country if they are incapable of serving, and the adoption of a white flag with a red cross for use on hospitals, ambulances, and evacuation centres whose neutrality would be recognized by this symbol.
    The campaign then began to persuade the different countries to ratify the Convention. It was approved by Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Spain and Switzerland in 1864. They were followed by Britain (1865), Prussia (1865), Greece (1865), Turkey (1865), Austria (1866), Portugal (1866), Russia (1867), Persia (1874), Serbia (1876), Chile (1879), Argentina (1879) and Peru (1880).

    (view changes)
    12:39 pm
  5. page Interwar Years Project edited ... "The Geneva Conference and their Additional Protocols are international treaties that con…
    ...
    "The Geneva Conference and their Additional Protocols are international treaties that contain the most important rules limiting the barbarity of war.
    They protect people who do not want to take part in the fighting"
    The first Geneva convention:: protects wounded
    This provides protection for the wounded and sick, but also for medical and religious personnel,
    medical units and medical units and transport
    The second Geneva convention:: protects wounded
    this convention replaced the Hague convention of 1907 for the adaptation to maritime warfare, if has 63 articles all applicable to war at sea
    it protects hospital ships and has identity cards for medical and religious personnel
    The third geneva convention:: applies to
    this convention replaced the prisoners of war convention of 1929 it contains 143 articles. specifiying in conditions of captivity
    and places of captivity. labour of prisoners of war, financial resources and releive after the event.
    The fourth geneva convetionfourth: applies to
    came about as a consequences of the abcence of a convention for the protection of civilians in wartime, provides strict
    regulation as to humanitarian relief for population in occupied territory and general protection of population.
    http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/genevaconventions
    **http://www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/genevaconventions**
    Geneva convention 1864
    the 1864 geneva convention layed the foundations for the current humanitarian law it is characterized by:
    Standing written rules of universal scope to protect the victims of conflicts
    mulitlateral nature open to all states the obligation to extend care with out discriminationg to wounded sick and military personel
    respect for marking of medical personel transports and equipment using an emblem( red cross on back)
    it was built on the basis that " Every government must, within the limits of its domestic policy, take such action as it shall deem best, either to facilitate the organization of Volunteer Sanitary Commissions, or to merely tolerate them. On this subject each Government must have perfect liberty of action. There can be no outside dictation or pressure exercised to compel any Government to execute any stipulation covering this ground. At present, there is no question involved as to the formation of Voluntary Relief Associations, nor of any alterations in or interference with the consecrated military code of nations, which would certainly be calculated to create embitterment or distrust. Those who have entertained a contrary impression, are completely in error in regard to our purposes and aims. And if it has been these fears which have prevented several States from sending delegates to our Congress, I cannot help expressing a profound regret."
    In 1864 the five men organized an international conference of 13 nations in Geneva to discuss the possibility of making warfare more "humane". At the end of the conference on 22nd August, 1864, the representatives signed the Geneva Convention. The agreement provided for the neutrality of ambulance and military hospitals, the non-belligerent status of persons who aid the wounded, and sick soldiers of any nationality, the return of prisoners to their country if they are incapable of serving, and the adoption of a white flag with a red cross for use on hospitals, ambulances, and evacuation centres whose neutrality would be recognized by this symbol.
    The campaign then began to persuade the different countries to ratify the Convention. It was approved by Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Spain and Switzerland in 1864. They were followed by Britain (1865), Prussia (1865), Greece (1865), Turkey (1865), Austria (1866), Portugal (1866), Russia (1867), Persia (1874), Serbia (1876), Chile (1879), Argentina (1879) and Peru (1880).

    (view changes)
    12:30 pm

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